# Pysound simple saw waves

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- pysound

In this example, we will create a simple saw (or triangle) wave.

This process is quite similar to the way we create a sine wave, it is worth reading that first.. The way we create a graph of the function, and the way we vary the amplitude and frequency are identical, so we won't repeat them here.

However, saw waves have an extra parameter, the `ratio`

, that determines the rise/fall time of the wave. This creates waves with different shapes, and and similar but different sounds.

## The code

Here is the code:

from pysound.buffer import BufferParams from pysound.oscillators import sine_wave from pysound import soundfile from pysound.graphs import Plotter params = BufferParams() out = saw_wave(params, frequency=500) soundfile.save(params, '/tmp/triangle-500.wav', out)

This works in a similar way to the sine wave example, but it uses the `saw_wave`

function instead:

out = saw_wave(params, frequency=500)

It is stored as *triangle-500.wav* in the current folder.

Here is what the sound looks like:

The terms triangle and saw are often used interchangeably. Technically a saw wave is a special case of a triangle wave, that has either a rise time of 0 or a fall time of 0. We will see an example below. The wave above is more accurately described as a triangle wave rather than a saw wave.

This sound is a harsher and more electronic sounding than a sine wave, but less harsh than a square wave.

## Changing the ratio of the triangle wave

A triangle wave rises linearly to its maximum value (+1.0 in this case) then falls linearly to its minimum value (-1.0 in this case) . By default, it spends half its time rising, and half its time falling.

We can change this using the `ratio`

parameter. The ratio specifies the on time as a proportion of the total wave time. A square wave, above, has a ratio of 0.5 (it is on for 50% of the time, therefore off for 50% of the time). The `ratio`

parameter defaults to 0.5, so if you don;t specify it you will get a square wave.

We can change the ratio like this:

out = saw_wave(params, frequency=500, ratio=0.3) soundfile.save(params, 'triangle-unequal-500.wav', out)

In this case, the ratio is 0.3 (it rises for 30% of the time, and falls for 70% of the time).

A wave with unequal rise/fall times is still called a triangle wave. Here is what the 0.3 case looks like:

## Saw wave

As we mentioned above, a saw wave is a special case of a triangle wave. We can created it by setting the `ratio`

to 0, so the rise time is 0. Here is the code:

out = saw_wave(params, frequency=500, ratio=0) soundfile.save(params, '/tmp/saw-500.wav', out)

Here is what it looks like:

The wave starts at +1.0, falls linearly to -1.0, the immediately jumps to +1.0 and starts again. This discontinuous jump in value is similar to a square wave.

If we were to set the `ratio`

to 1 rather than 0, the wave would spend all of its time rising linearly form -1.0 to +1.0, then jump back to -1.0. It would be like the wave above, turned upside down, and it would sound identical.